By: Amit Chaudhary @amit_sfdc
Lightning Experience is a new, modern user interface. Lightning Experience includes many new feature and entirely redesigned pages, but not every Salesforce feature is supported in Lightning Experience.
Things to consider before you start:
1) Check which org is qualified for Lighting
2) Evaluate Your Org
Go to Setup -> "Lightning Experience" then click on evaluate button
Then check your report.
3) Helpful Trailhead Modules you should complete:
1) VF page to Lighting Component
2. Business logic
We are using VF page as UI (view) and apex class for business logic but in the lightning component, We need to write all our business logic at client side with in the lightning component and use apex classes as server side component to perform DML operations.
Mostly VF page tag provide the native salesforce classic UI but in the lightning component we need to use lightning design to get salesforce lightning experience for our components. So be aware of lightning design system when you begin your development.
A lightning component bundle consists of several attributes.
See here for more information: